EFFECT OF BORON ON STEEL :
Increases hardenability of lower carbon steels - up to 0.008% maximum boron content. Has improved machinability, as well as hot and cold working characteristics over standard alloy steels.
EFFECT OF CARBON ON STEEL :
Increasing the carbon content increases the tensile strength and hardness.
EFFECT OF CHROMIUM ON STEEL :
Increases hardenability, resistance to corrosion and oxidation, abrasion and high temperature strength.
EFFECT OF COPPER ON STEEL :
Used to increase atmospheric corrosion resistance, and sensitivity to both cold and hot shortness.
EFFECT OF MANGANESE ON STEEL :
Manganese is added in the making of steel to prevent red shortness and increase hardenability.
EFFECT OF MOLYBDENUM ON STEEL :
Increases hardenability and coarsening temperature. Raises the creep strength and red hardness, and enhances corrosion resistance of stainless steel.
EFFECT OF NICKEL ON STEEL :
Strengthens and toughens ferrite and pearlitic steels, and renders high chromium alloy steels austenitic (stainless steels).
EFFECT OF PHOSPHOROUS ON STEEL :
Produces brittleness and general cold shortness. Strengthens low carbon steel, increases resistance to corrosion, and improves machinability.
EFFECT OF SILICON ON STEEL :
Used as a general purpose deoxidizer. Strengthens low alloy steels and increases hardenability. Used as alloying element for electrical and magnetic steels.
EFFECT OF SULPHUR ON STEEL :
When sulphur is over .06 there is a tendency to red shortness. Free cutting steel, for threading and screw machine work, is obtained by increasing sulphur content to about .075 to .10.
EFFECT OF VANADIUM ON STEEL :
Elevates coarsening temperatures, increases hardenability, and is a strong deoxidizer.
ELASTIC LIMIT :
The greatest stress a material is capable of developing without a measurable change remaining after complete release of the stress. To determine the elastic limit, a load is applied to a specimen at a uniform rate, and the stress at which the specimen suddenly elongates is recorded on an “extensometer”, reading to 0.0002 inch, which is attached to the specimen to indicate distance between gauge marks.
ENDURANCE LIMIT :
Maximum stress to which material may be submitted without causing fatigue failure.
EUTECTOID STEEL :
A steel consisting of nothing but pearlite (about .90 carbon).